United States Public Law

Select Claus­es from Unit­ed States Pub­lic Law 103 – 150

Full text for UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAW 103 – 150

Joint Res­o­lu­tion to acknowl­edge the 100th anniver­sary of the Jan­u­ary 17, 1893 over­throw of the King­dom of Hawai’i, and to offer an apol­o­gy to Native Hawai­ians on behalf of the Unit­ed States for the over­throw of the King­dom of Hawai’i.

Para­graph 1

Where­as, pri­or to the arrival of the first Euro­pean in 1778, the Native Hawai­ian peo­ple lived in a high­ly orga­nized, self-suf­fi­cient, sub­sis­tent social sys­tem based on com­mu­nal land tenure with a sophis­ti­cat­ed lan­guage, cul­ture and reli­gion;

Para­graph 3

Where­as, from 1826 until 1893, the Unit­ed States rec­og­nized the inde­pen­dence of the King­dom of Hawai’i, extend­ed full and com­plete diplo­mat­ic recog­ni­tion to the Hawai­ian gov­ern­ment, and entered into treaties and con­ven­tions with the Hawai­ian monarch to gov­ern com­merce and nav­i­ga­tion in 1826, 1842, 1849, 1875 and 1887;

Para­graph 8

Where­as, the Unit­ed States Min­is­ter there­upon extend­ed diplo­mat­ic recog­ni­tion to the pro­vi­sion­al gov­ern­ment that was formed by the con­spir­a­tors with­out the con­sent of the Native Hawai­ian peo­ple or the law­ful gov­ern­ment of Hawai’i and in vio­la­tion of treaties between the two nations and of inter­na­tion­al law;

Para­graph 29

Where­as, the indige­nous Hawai­ian peo­ple nev­er direct­ly relin­quished their sov­er­eign­ty as a peo­ple or over their nation­al lands to the Unit­ed States, either through their monar­chy or through a plebiscite or ref­er­en­dum;

Para­graph 41

[The Con­gress] express­es its com­mit­ment to acknowl­edge the ram­i­fi­ca­tions of the over­throw of the King­dom of Hawai’i in order to pro­vide the prop­er foun­da­tion for rec­on­cil­i­a­tion between the Unit­ed States and the Native Hawai­ian peo­ple.

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